Obesidade: impacto no Carcinoma Colorretal

  • Maria Leonor Táboas Simões Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto
  • Laura E. Barbosa Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto

Resumo

Introdução: A prevalência crescente de obesidade constitui um grave problema de saúde pública, associando-se a um aumento do risco de inúmeras patologias que resultam em morbi-mortalidade significativa. Entre estas parecem estar diversas neoplasias, como o carcinoma colorretal (CCR). O objetivo deste trabalho consiste em avaliar o impacto da obesidade como fator de risco para CCR e discutir os mecanismos que podem estabelecer uma ligação entre esta neoplasia e a obesidade. Métodos: Foi efetuada uma pesquisa bibliográfica na base de dados PubMed, limitada a dez anos, com inclusão dos artigos considerados relevantes após leitura do título e resumo. Resultados: Existe uma associação positiva estatisticamente significativa entre o CCR e a obesidade, sendo o risco associado mais forte para o género masculino e para o cólon comparativamente ao reto, na maioria dos estudos. Apesar do índice de massa corporal (IMC) ser a medida mais usada para estimativa de obesidade nos estudos na área do CCR, foi verificado um risco maior desta neoplasia ao serem utilizadas medidas de obesidade visceral, como o perímetro de cintura (PC) ou a razão cintura anca (RCA), comparativamente com o IMC, refletindo a importância da distribuição da gordura corporal nesta associação. Os resultados mais inconsistentes foram verificados para o risco de carcinoma do reto no género feminino. Relativamente à associação comparando entre cólon proximal e distal e ao efeito de uma variação ponderal na vida adulta no risco de carcinoma do cólon, a evidência é ainda limitada e discordante. Conclusões: Apesar de ainda não se compreender totalmente os mecanismos que estão subjacentes à associação verificada entre a obesidade e o CCR, têm sido propostas algumas hipóteses, que se focam essencialmente na atividade metabólica e hormonal da adiposidade visceral. Este trabalho alerta para a importância da obesidade como fator de risco para CCR, reforçando a importância do controlo do peso corporal e da acumulação de gordura corporal em excesso. Novas vias de investigação podem ganhar relevância no futuro e esclarecer algumas questões para as quais a evidência é ainda limitada.

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Biografias Autor

Maria Leonor Táboas Simões, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto

Licenciada em Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto

Serviço de Cirurgia Geral

Laura E. Barbosa, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto

Mestre, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto

Serviço de Cirurgia Geral

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Publicado
2017-09-30
Como Citar
SIMÕES, Maria Leonor Táboas; BARBOSA, Laura E.. Obesidade: impacto no Carcinoma Colorretal. Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia, [S.l.], n. 42, p. 17 - 32, set. 2017. ISSN 2183-1165. Disponível em: <https://revista.spcir.com/index.php/spcir/article/view/679>. Acesso em: 12 dez. 2017.
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